After someone is diagnosed with anal cancer, doctors will try to figure out if it has spread, and if so, how far. This process is called staging. The stage of a cancer describes how much cancer is in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it.
Anal Cancer: How to Diagnose, Staging & Treatment - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Boston, MA
Surgical or pathological staging if surgery has been performed is done by examining tissue. The TNM staging system examines three key factors to determine the stage of cancer:. A number or the letter X is assigned to each factor. A higher number indicates increasing severity. For instance, a T1 score indicates a smaller tumor than a T2 score. The letter X means the information could not be assessed.
Skip to Content. This is called the stage. In addition, you can read about how doctors evaluate and compare cancer cells to healthy cells, called grading.
The anus is the end of the large intestine , below the rectum , through which stool solid waste leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like muscles, called sphincter muscles, open and close the anal opening and let stool pass out of the body. Enlarge Anatomy of the lower digestive system, showing the colon and other organs. The skin around the outside of the anus is called the perianal area.